Name: Thomas "Toro" Raymond
Occupation: Circus "fire-eater,"
later adventurer, later occupation unknown
Status: Citizen of the United States with no criminal record
Other Aliases: Human Torch (while amnesiac)
Place of Birth: New York City
of Death: An island in the Pacific Ocean
Marital Status: Married
Relatives: Fred (father, deceased), Nora (mother, deceased), Ann (wife)
Affiliation: Partner of the original Human Torch, member of the Invaders,
Kid Commandos, and the Ali-Winners Squad
Base of Operations: New York
City, (during World War II) London, England
Appearance: SUB-MARINER #14
History: Fred Raymond, a young man in
the employ of Professor Phineas T. Horton, who would later create the original
Human Torch, was an expert on flame proofing
who was conducting experiments with asbestos. Longtime exposure to asbestos ruined
Raymond's health, and he left Horton's employ. Soon afterwards Raymond married
Nora Jones, a scientist who was herself seriously ill from overexposure to radium
in her experiments. They honeymooned in Mexico, and nine months later their son
Thomas was born. They nicknamed him "Toro," the Spanish word for bull,
as a private joke, in memory of the bullfights they had seen on their honeymoon.
As Thomas grew into boyhood, his parents realized that they would probably die
from their illnesses before he became an adult. However, they discovered that
Thomas was immune to fire, and Nora theorized that he was a mutant.
day the Raymond's home was invaded by a costumed criminal named the Asbestos Lady
and her gang. The Asbestos Lady utilized fire in her crimes, protecting herself
with asbestos, and intended to force Raymond to develop new means by which she
could use asbestos in crime. The original Human Torch, who had been watching the
Raymonds' home, suspecting that the Asbestos Lady would contact such a noted authority
on asbestos, broke in and captured the gang. The Asbestos Lady, however, escaped.
The Torch learned about Thomas' immunity to fire from his parents, and decided
to keep watch over the Raymonds, both to protect them from the Asbestos Lady and
to monitor Thomas' development. Soon afterwards, Fred Raymond learned that his
wife had only a few more weeks to live. He kept the news from her and instead
hurriedly arranged a vacation trip for the family, which would be Nora's last.
They embarked on the trip by train, but the Asbestos Lady, obsessed with making
up for her failure to capture Raymond, had a huge tree trunk placed on the tracks.
The train hit the trunk and was derailed and wrecked. Fred and Nora Raymond died
when the train burst into flames, but Thomas escaped. A married team of circus
fire-eaters, Tom and Ellie Alexander, were driving by and saw Thomas rushing into
the flames unharmed to try to find his parents. Moved by both sympathy for the
orphan's plight and by the realization that he would prove a boon to their act,
the Alexanders decided to take him under their wing.
But weeks later news
reports began to spread about the amazing boy fire-eater and his immunity to flame.
The original Human Torch and the Asbestos Lady simultaneously realized who Toro
was, and each set out to find him. The Human Torch captured the Asbestos Lady
and her gang, and then headed for the circus where Toro was performing. As the
Torch approached Toro, his presence caused Toro to burst into flame like the Torch
himself, but while remaining unharmed. The Torch realized that Toro had the same
powers that he himself did. The Torch became Toro's legal guardian, and trained
Toro in the use of his powers. The original Human Torch and Toro became a crimefighting
When the United States entered World War II, the original Torch and
Toro became founding members of the Invaders. Toro remained with the Invaders
for the length of the war, except when he was serving with the Kid Commandos.
Toro was present when the original Human Torch killed Adolph Hitler, and, after
the war, Toro and the Torch continued with the Invaders under its new name, the
In 1949 criminals paralyzed the Torch and Toro with a
spray of "solution X-R" which they had obtained from the Soviet Union.
The criminals left Toro behind, believing him to be no real threat without his
mentor, and buried the Torch in the Nevada desert. Toro retired from crimefighting
upon recovering. In December 1953, an atomic bomb test released the Torch, who
resumed his partnership with Toro for two more years. But the Torch discovered
that the radiation he had absorbed from the bomb blast was causing him to malfunction.
He bid farewell to Toro and flew to the desert, where he emitted a burst of energy
and became deactivated. Toro eventually realized that the Torch had "died,"
and so Toro retired from crimefighting, married, and led a normal life in relative
Years later, the Mad Thinker
found and reactivated the Torch and forced him to try to destroy the Fantastic
Four. The Torch was deactivated, supposedly permanently, in the course of
the battle. Funeral services were announced for the original Torch, and Thomas
Raymond decided to attend. The Mad Thinker confronted Raymond outside the cemetery
and drugged him. When Toro awoke, the drug had given him partial amnesia, and
the Thinker convinced him that he was the original Human Torch. Moreover, the
Thinker had fastened a collar around Toro's neck through which he could induce
enough pain to force Toro to act as his servant. However, in a battle between
Toro and the Sub-Mariner, the collar was damaged
so that it could not hurt him, and Toro joined forces with the Sub-Mariner against
the Thinker. During ensuing events, Toro's full memory returned. Enraged at the
Thinker for enslaving and brainwashing him, Toro attacked the Thinker, who was
escaping in a skycraft. Toro entered the ship's rocket tubes and used his own
power to propel it towards the Thinker's pacific island laboratory, where the
ship crashed and exploded. The Thinker escaped through a teleportation device,
but Toro was killed in the crash.
Height: (as Invader) 5 ft. 4 in.,
(as adult) 5 ft. 11 in.
Weight: (as Invader) 115 lbs., (as adult) 170
Toro possessed the normal human strength of a male of his age, height and build
who engaged in moderate regular exercise.
Known Superhuman Powers:
Toro was a mutant who possessed the mental ability to control ambient heat energy
and the physical ability to envelop his entire body or portions of his body with
fiery plasma without harm to himself. (Plasma is a super-heated state of matter
such as exists in the atmosphere of stars.)
Ordinarily, when aflame, Toro
was enveloped by a low intensity flame of low level plasma (reddish, approximately
780° Fahrenheit) which ranged from 1 to 5 inches from his body. He could,
however, generate heat and flame of temperatures ranging up to 2500° Fahrenheit.
could create shapes composed of fire. These flame-objects would only retain their
shapes as long as he concentrated upon them. The objects would burn for only about
three minutes unless Toro continued to infuse them with energy. Like his mentor,
the original Human Torch, Toro could telekinetically control not only flame objects
that he created but also flames he did not create.
Toro's plasma had a high
hydrogen content and was surrounded by an exuded cloud of mono-atomic hydrogen
atoms. This hot cloud provided sufficient buoyancy for him to float. By forming
a jet from his feet, directed behind him, while he was in his flaming state, he
could fly at speeds up to 150 miles per hour.
Toro could absorb flames into
himself without harm within certain undefined limits.
Toro's flame was supported
by the presence of oxygen and thus was extinguished in low air pressure or a vacuum.
Toro's flame could be extinguished by smothering materials such as water, sand,
fire-fighting foam, and heat-resistant blankets, unless his flame was at such
intensity that it immediately vaporized such materials on contact. If hit with
small amounts of water up to about 5 gallons, Toro could turn it to steam with
relatively little effort. More water than that would extinguish his flame at its
normal level, and he would have to wait until he could evaporate the residual
moisture before re-ignition.
Toro's light output was mostly in the infrared
and far infrared regions of the spectrum and was invisible to the unaided eye.
Therefore, Toro, when aflame, was dimmer than one would expect of so powerful
an energy source.
Toro was unaffected by heat and flames, including his
own, even when part of him was aflame and the rest was not. His flesh could not
be scalded or burned by any heat source whose level was below that of his maximum
output of heat.